Key Terms Test 2


Malware – any form of malicious code (viruses, worms, etc.)

Virus – a program that has the ability to make copies of itself and spread to additional files.

Worms – malware that is designed to spread from computer to computer.

Trojan horses – Code that appears benign but does something other than what is expected.

Drive-by downloads – malware that comes with a requested download.

Backdoors – a feature of malware that allows attackers to remotely access computers.

Bots, botnets – code that responds to external commands sent by an attacker. A botnet is a
collection of “captured” computers.

Potentially Unwanted Programs – (PUP) programs that install themselves without the user’s consent.

Phishing – deceptive online attempts to obtain confidential information for financial gain.

Hacker/cracker – an individual who intends to gain unauthorized access to a computer system. “Cracker” denotes a hacker with malicious intent.

Cybervandalism – intentionally disrupting, defacing, or destroying a website.

Hacktivism – cybervandalism and data theft for political purposes.

Spoofing – hiding one’s identity by using someone else’s email address or IP address.

Pharming – automatically redirecting a web link that is different from the intended one; the fake site looks identical to the intended site.

Spam (Junk) Web Sites – also called “link farms”; attract users with a promise of goods or
services but are just collections of advertisements.

Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks – flooding a website with useless traffic to overwhelm the

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks – using numerous computers to attack the target from numerous launch points.

Sniffer – an eavesdropping program that monitors information travelling over a network.

Public key encryption – (see notes) Public key cryptography solves the problem of exchanging keys by creating a mathematically related public key and private key.

Symmetric key encryption – both the sender and receiver use the same key to encrypt and
decrypt a message.

SSL/TLS (secure negotiated session) – a client-server session which the URL of the requested document, along with the contents, contents of forms, and the cookies exchanged, are encrypted.

Firewalls – refer to either hardware or software that filter communication packets and prevent packets from entering the network based on a security policy.

Proxy servers – software servers that handle all communications originating from or being sent to the Internet.

Nonrepudiation – the ability to ensure that e-commerce participants do not deny their actions online

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